Apprenticeship (Wikipedia World View)
Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. Apprentices (or in early modern usage “prentices”) or protégés build their careers from apprenticeships. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade, in exchange for their continuing labor for an agreed period after they become skilled. Theoretical education may also be involved, informally via the workplace and/or by attending vocational schools while still being paid by the employer.
The system of apprenticeship first developed in the later Middle Ages and came to be supervised by craft guilds and town governments. A master craftsman was entitled to employ young people as an inexpensive form of labor in exchange for providing food, lodging and formal training in the craft. Most apprentices were males, but female apprentices were found in crafts such as seamstress,tailor, cordwainer, baker and stationer. Apprentices usually began at ten to fifteen years of age, and would live in the master craftsman’s household. Most apprentices aspired to becoming master craftsmen themselves on completion of their contract (usually a term of seven years), but some would spend time as a journeyman and a significant proportion would never acquire their own workshop.
 Analogs at universities and professional development
The modern concept of an internship is similar to an apprenticeship. Universities still use apprenticeship schemes in their production of scholars: bachelors are promoted to masters and then produce a thesis under the oversight of a supervisor before the corporate body of the university recognises the achievement of the standard of a doctorate. Another view of this system is of graduate students in the role of apprentices, post-doctoral fellows as journeymen, and professors as masters.
Also similar to apprenticeships are the professional development arrangements for new graduates in the professions of accountancy and the law. A British example was training contracts known as ‘articles of clerkship‘. The learning curve in modern professional service firms, such as law firms or accountancies, generally resembles the traditional master-apprentice model: the newcomer to the firm is assigned to one or several more experienced colleagues (ideally partners in the firm) and learns his skills on the job.
Australian Apprenticeships is the new name for the scheme formerly known as ‘New Apprenticeships’. Under the scheme, involving 400,000 people in 500 occupations, the Australian Government incentives and personal benefits programme are still the same. Australian Apprenticeships still encompass all apprenticeships and traineeships. They combine time at work with training and can be full-time, part-time or school-based. Youth can become apprentices starting as early as age 14 if there are willing employers.
As part of its policy paper – Skilling Australia for the Future, the Australian Government announced that it will expand the role of existing Australian Apprenticeships Centres to establish the Skills and Training Information Centres (STICs), providing information and advice skills & training.
Australian Apprenticeships is the generic term for apprentices and trainees. The distinction between the two lies mainly around traditional trades and the time it takes to gain a qualification. The Australian government uses Australian Apprenticeships Centres to administer and facilitate the Australian Apprenticeships so that funding can be disseminated to eligible businesses and apprentices and trainees and to support the whole process as it underpins the future skills of Australian industry. Australia also has a fairly unique safety net in place for businesses and Australian Apprentices with its Group Training scheme. This is where businesses that are not able to employ the Australian Apprentice for the full period until they qualify, are able to lease or hire the Australian Apprentice from a Group Training Organisation. It is a safety net, because the Group Training Organisation is the employer and provides continuity of employment and training for the Australian Apprentice.
In addition to a safety net, Group Training Organizations (GTO) have other benefits such as additional support for both the Host employer and the trainee/apprentice through an industry consultant who visits regularly to make sure that the trainee/apprentice are fulfilling their work and training obligations with their Host employer. There is the additional benefit of the trainee/apprentice being employed by the GTO reducing the Payroll/Superannuation and other legislative requirements on the Host employer who pays as invoiced per agreement.
Apprenticeship Training in Austria is organized in a Dual education system: company-based training of apprentices is complemented by compulsory attendance of a part-time vocational school for apprentices (Berufsschule). It lasts two to four years – the duration varies among the 250 legally recognized apprenticeship trades.
About 40 percent of all Austrian teenagers enter apprenticeship training upon completion of compulsory education (at age 15). This number has been stable since the 1950s.
The five most popular trades are: Retail Salesperson (5,000 people complete this apprenticeship per year), Clerk (3,500 / year), Car Mechanic (2,000 / year), Hairdresser (1,700 / year), Cook (1,600 / year). There are many smaller trades with small numbers of apprentices, like “EDV-Systemtechniker” (Sysadmin) which is completed by fewer than 100 people a year.
The Apprenticeship Leave Certificate provides the apprentice with access to two different vocational careers. On the one hand, it is a prerequisite for the admission to the Master Craftsman Exam and for qualification tests, and on the other hand it gives access to higher education via the TVE-Exam or the Higher Education Entrance Exam which are prerequisites for taking up studies at colleges, universities, “Fachhochschulen”, post-secondary courses and post-secondary colleges.
The person responsible for overseeing the training inside the company is called “Lehrherr” or “Ausbilder”. An Ausbilder must prove he has the professional qualifications needed to educate another person. The “Ausbilder” must also prove he does not have a criminal record and is an otherwise respectable person. According to the laws: the person wanting to educate a young apprentice must prove that he has an ethical way of living and the civic qualities of a good citizen.
In France, apprenticeships also developed between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, with guilds structured around apprentices, journeymen and master craftsmen, continuing in this way until 1791, when the guilds were suppressed.
The first laws regarding apprenticeships were passed in 1851. From 1919, young people had to take 150 hours of theory and general lessons in their subject a year. This minimum training time rose to 360 hours a year in 1961, then 400 in 1986.
The first training centres for apprentices (centres de formation d’apprentis, CFAs) appeared in 1961, and in 1971 apprenticeships were legally made part of professional training. In 1986 the age limit for beginning an apprenticeship was raised from 20 to 25. From 1987 the range of qualifications achieveable through an apprenticeship was widened to include the brevet professionnel (certificate of vocational aptitude), the bac professionnel (vocational baccalaureate diploma), the brevet de technicien supérieur (advanced technician’s certificate), engineering diplomas, masters degree and more.
On January 18, 2005, President Jacques Chirac announced the introduction of a law on a programme for social cohesion comprising the three pillars of employment, housing and equal opportunities. The French government pledged to further develop apprenticeship as a path to success at school and to employment, based on its success: in 2005, 80% of young French people who had completed an apprenticeship entered employment. In France, the term apprenticeship often denotes manual labor but it also include other jobs like secretary, manager, engineer, shop assistant… The plan aimed to raise the number of apprentices from 365,000 in 2005 to 500,000 in 2009. To achieve this aim, the government is, for example, granting tax relief for companies when they take on apprentices. (Since 1925 a tax has been levied to pay for apprenticeships.) The minister in charge of the campaign, Jean-Louis Borloo, also hoped to improve the image of apprenticeships with an information campaign, as they are often connected with academic failure at school and an ability to grasp only practical skills and not theory. After the civil unrest end of 2005, the government, led by prime minister Dominique de Villepin, announced a new law. Dubbed “law on equality of chances”, it created the First Employment Contract as well as manual apprenticeship from as early as 14 years of age. From this age, students are allowed to quit the compulsory school system in order to quickly learn a vocation. This measure has long been a policy of conservative French political parties, and was met by tough opposition from trade unions and students.
Apprenticeships are part of Germany’s dual education system, and as such form an integral part of many people’s working life. Finding employment without having completed an apprenticeship is almost impossible. For some particular technical university professions, such as food technology, a completed apprenticeship is often recommended; for some, such as marine engineering it may even be mandatory.
In Germany, there are 342 recognized trades (Ausbildungsberufe) where an apprenticeship can be completed. They include for example doctor’s assistant, banker, dispensing optician, plumber or oven builder. The dual system means that apprentices spend about 50-70% of their time in companies and the rest in formal education. Depending on the profession, they may work for three to four days a week in the company and then spend one or two days at a vocational school (Berufsschule). This is usually the case for trade and craftspeople. For other professions, usually which require more theoretical learning, the working and school times take place blockwise e.g. in a 12–18 weeks interval. These Berufsschulen have been part of the education system since the 19th century.
In 2001, two thirds of young people aged under 22 began an apprenticeship, and 78% of them completed it, meaning that approximately 51% of all young people under 22 have completed an apprenticeship. One in three companies offered apprenticeships in 2003, in 2004 the government signed a pledge with industrial unions that all companies except very small ones must take on apprentices.
 Apprenticeship after general education
After graduation from school at the age of fifteen to nineteen (depending on type of school), students start an apprenticeship in their chosen professions. Realschule and Gymnasium graduates usually have better chances for being accepted as an apprentice for sophisticated craft professions or apprenticeships in white-collar jobs in finance or administration. An apprenticeship takes between 2.5 and 3.5 years. Originally, at the beginning of the 20th century, less than 1% of German students attended the Gymnasium (the 8-9 year university-preparatory school) to obtain the Abitur graduation which was the only way to university back then. In the 1950 still only 5% of German youngsters entered university and in 1960 only 6% did. Due to the risen social wealth and the increased demand for academic professionals in Germany, about 24% of the youngsters entered college/university in 2000. Of those, who did not enter university many started an apprenticeship. The apprenticeships usually end a person’s education by age 18-20, but also older apprentices are accepted by the employers under certain conditions. This is frequently the case for immigrants from countries without a compatible professional training system. In the U.S. apprenticeships could occur at any age.
In 1969, a law (the Berufsbildungsgesetz) was passed which regulated and unified the vocational training system and codified the shared responsibility of the state, the unions, associations and the chambers of trade and industry. The dual system was successful in both parts of the divided Germany. In the GDR, three quarters of the working population had completed apprenticeships.
 Business and administrative professions
The precise skills and theory taught on German apprenticeships are strictly regulated. The employer is responsible for the entire education programme coordinated by the German chamber of commerce. Apprentices obtain a special apprenticeship contract until the end of the education programme. During the programme it is not allowed to assign the apprentice to a regularly employment and he is well protected from abrupt dismissal until the programme ends. The defined content and skillset of the apprentice profession must be fully provided and taught by the employer. The time taken is also regulated. Each profession takes a different time, usually between 24 and 36 months.
Thus, everyone who had e.g. completed an apprenticeship as an industrial manager (Industriekaufmann) has learned the same skills and has attended the same courses in procurement and stocking up, controlling, staffing, accounting procedures, production planning, terms of trade and transport logistics and various other subjects. Someone who has not taken this apprenticeship or did not pass the final examinations at the chamber of industry and commerce is not allowed to call himself an Industriekaufmann. Most job titles are legally standardized and restricted. An employment in such function in any company would require this completed degree.
 Trade and craft professions
The rules and laws for the trade and craftswork apprentices such as mechanics, bakers, joiners, etc. are as strict as and even broader than for the business professions. The involved procedures, titles and traditions still strongly reflect the medieval origin of the system. Here, the average duration is about 36 months, some specialized crafts even take up to 42 months.
After completion of the dual education, e.g. a baker is allowed to call himself a bakery journeyman (Bäckereigeselle). After the apprenticeship the journeyman can enter the master’s school (Meisterschule) and continue his education at evening courses for 3–4 years or full-time for about one year. The graduation from the master’s school leads to the title of a master craftsman (Meister) of his profession, so e.g. a bakery master is entitled as Bäckermeister. A master is officially entered in the local trade register, the craftspeople’s roll (Handwerksrolle). A master craftsman is allowed to employ and to train new apprentices. In some mostly safety-related professions, e.g. that of electricians only a master is allowed to found his own company.
 License for educating apprentices
To employ and to educate apprentices requires a specific license. The AdA – Ausbildung der Ausbilder – “Education of the Educators” license needs to be acquired by a training at the chamber of industry and commerce.
The masters complete this license course within their own master’s coursework. The training and examination of new masters is only possible for masters who have been working several years in their profession and who have been accepted by the chambers as a trainer and examiner.
Academic professionals, e.g. engineers, seeking this license need to complete the AdA during or after their university studies, usually by a one-year evening course.
The holder of the license is only allowed to train apprentices within his own field of expertise. For example a mechanical engineer would be able to educate industrial mechanics, but not e.g. laboratory assistants or civil builders.
 After the apprenticeship of trade and craft professions
In India, the Apprentices Act was enacted in 1961. It regulates the programme of training of apprentices in the industry so as to conform to the syllabi, period of training etc. as laid down by the Central Apprenticeship Council and to utilise fully the facilities available in industry for imparting practical training with a view to meeting the requirements of skilled manpower for industry.
The Apprentices Act enacted in 1961 and was implemented effectively in 1962. Initially the Act envisaged training of trade apprentices. The Act was amended in 1973 to include training of graduate and diploma engineers as “Graduate” & “Technician” Apprentices. The Act was further amended in 1986 to bring within its purview the training of the 10+2 vocational stream as “Technician (Vocational)” Apprentices.
Overall responsibility is with the Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGE&T) in the Union Ministry of Labour. DGE&T is also responsible for implementation of the Act in respect of Trade Apprentices in the Central Govt. Undertakings & Departments. This is done through six Regional Directorates of Apprenticeship Training located at Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kanpur & Faridabad.
State Apprenticeship Advisers are responsible for implementation of the Act in respect of Trade Apprentices in State Government Undertakings/ Departments and Private Establishments. Department of Education in the Ministry of HRD is responsible for implementation of the Act in respect of Graduate, Technician & Technician (Vocational) Apprentices. This is done through four Boards of Apprenticeship Training located at Kanpur, Kolkata, Mumbai & Chennai.l
In Pakistan, special apprenticeship programs running to fulfill the needs of IT industry in the coming years. So, for this purpose Pakistan Software Export Board formerly PSEB has launched a very attractive program for young IT graduates.
Under the IT Industry Apprenticeship Program, PSEB offers financial subsidy for the companies to recruit graduates possessing the basic skills and knowledge in Information Technology and other related disciplines to provide IT/ITeS services. These recruits, generally graduates with some experience rather than traditional apprentices, are hired by companies as full-time employees and put through a 12-month program, consisting of in-company training, on-the-job training and mentoring. Since its launch, the IT Industry Apprenticeship Program has been awarded to 7 companies, approved by PSEB and ICT R&D Fund’s Project Committee, which will result in the creation of over 700 job opportunities in the IT industry.
There are three levels of apprenticeship. First level is the apprentice, i.e. the “çırak” in Turkish. The second level is pre-master which is called, “kalfa” in Turkish. The mastery level is called as “usta” and is the highest level of achievement. An ‘usta’ is eligible to take in and accept new ‘ciraks’ to train and bring them up. The training process usually starts when the small boy is of age 10-11 and becomes a full grown master at the age of 20-25. Many years of hard work and disciplining under the authority of the master is the key to the young apprentice’s education and learning process.
In Turkey today there are many vocational schools that train children to gain skills to learn a new profession. The student after graduation looks for a job at the nearest local marketplace usually under the authority of a master.
 United Kingdom
 Early history
Apprenticeships have a long tradition in the United Kingdom, dating back to around the 12th century and flourishing by the 14th century. The parents or guardians of a minor would agree with a Guild’s Master craftsman the conditions for an apprenticeship which would bind the minor for 5–9 years (e.g. from age 14 to 21). They would pay a premium to the craftsman and the contract would be recorded in an indenture. In 1563, the Statute of Artificers and Apprentices was passed to regulate and protect the apprenticeship system, forbidding anyone from practising a trade or craft without first serving a 7-year period as an apprentice to a master (though in practice Freemen’s sons could negotiate shorter terms).
From 1601, ‘parish‘ apprenticeships under the Elizabethan Poor Law came to be used as a way of providing for poor, illegitimate and orphaned children of both sexes alongside the regular system of skilled apprenticeships, which tended to provide for boys from slightly more affluent backgrounds. These parish apprenticeships, which could be created with the assent of two Justices of the Peace, supplied apprentices for occupations of lower status such as farm labouring, brickmaking and menial household service.
In the early years of the Industrial Revolution entrepreneurs began to resist the restrictions of the apprenticeship system, and a legal ruling established that the Statute of Apprentices did not apply to trades that were not in existence when it was passed in 1563, thus excluding many new 18th century industries. In 1814 compulsory apprenticeship by indenture was abolished.
 System introduced in 1964
The mainstay of training in industry has been the apprenticeship system, and the main concern has been to avoid skill shortages in traditionally skilled occupations, e.g. through the UK Industry Training Boards (ITBs) set up under the 1964 Act. The aims were to ensure an adequate supply of training at all levels; to improve the quality and quantity of training; and to share the costs of training among employers. The ITBs were empowered to publish training recommendations, which contained full details of the tasks to be learned, the syllabus to be followed, the standards to be reached and vocational courses to be followed. These were often accompanied by training manuals, which were in effect practitioners’ guides to apprentice training, and some ITBs provide training in their own centers. The ITBs did much to formalize what could have been a haphazard training experience and greatly improved its quality. The years from the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s saw the highest levels of apprentice recruitment, yet even so, out of a school leaving cohort of about 750,000, only about 110,000 (mostly boys) became apprentices. The apprenticeship system aimed at highly developed craft and higher technician skills for an elite minority of the workforce, the majority of whom were trained in industries that declined rapidly from 1973 onwards, and by the 1980’s it was clear that in manufacturing this decline was permanent. (Apprenticeship in the United Kingdom: From ITBs to YTS Author(s): Peter Haxby and David ParkesSource: European Journal of Education, Vol. 24, No. 2 (1989), pp. 167–181).
Traditional apprenticeships reached their lowest point in the 1980s: by that time, training programmes were rare and people who were apprentices learned mainly by example. The exception to this was in the high technology engineering areas of aerospace, chemicals, nuclear, automotive, power and energy systems where apprentices served very structured five year programmes of both practical and academic study to qualify as engineering technicians and technologists, and even go on to university and earn an engineering degree and qualify as an Incorporate Engineer or Chartered Engineer. Engineering technicians and technologists attended the local technical college (1 day and 2 evenings per week) on a City & Guilds programme or Ordinary National Certificate / Higher National Certificate course. In effect becoming a chartered engineer via the apprenticeship route involved 10 – 12 years of both academic and vocational training at an employer, college of further education and university. In 1986 National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) were introduced, in an attempt to revitalize vocational training. Still, by 1990, apprenticeship took up only two-thirds of one percent of total employment.
 Revitalisation from 1990s on
In 1994, the Government introduced Modern Apprenticeships (since renamed ‘Apprenticeships’ in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; Scotland has retained Modern Apprenticeship), based on frameworks that are now devised by Sector Skills Councils. Apprenticeship frameworks contain a number of separately-certified elements:
- a knowledge-based element, typically certified through a qualification known as a ‘Technical Certificate’ (this component is not mandatory in the Scottish Modern Apprenticeship);
- a competence-based element, typically certified through an NVQ (in Scotland this can be through an SVQ or an alternative Competence Based Qualification);
- Key Skills (in Scotland, Core Skills); and
- Employment Rights and Responsibilities (known as ERR) to show that the Apprentice has had a full induction to the company or training programme, and is aware of those right and responsibilities that are essential in the workplace; this usually requires the creation of a personal portfolio of activities, reading and instruction sessions, but is not examined.
In Scotland, Modern Apprenticeship Frameworks are approved by the Modern Apprenticeship Group (MAG) and it, with the support of the Scottish Government, has determined that from January 2010, all Frameworks submitted to it for approval, must have the mandatory elements credit rated for the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF).
As of 2009 there are over 180 apprenticeship frameworks. Unlike traditional apprenticeships, the current scheme extends beyond craft and skilled trades to parts of the service sector with no apprenticeship tradition. In 2008 Creative & Cultural Skills, the Sector Skills Council, introduced a set of Creative Apprenticeships awarded by EDI. A freelance apprenticeship framework was also approved and uses freelance professionals to mentor freelance apprentices. The Freelance Apprenticeship was first written and proposed by Karen Akroyd (Access To Music) in 2008. In 2011 Freelance Music Apprenticeships are available in music colleges in Birmingham, Manchester and London. The Department for Children, Schools and Families has stated its intention to make apprenticeships a “mainstream” part of England’s education system.
In 2010, Pearson Work Based Learning launched its new brand of Apprenticeship combining the established Edexcel BTEC brand and a number of technology solutions to form BTEC Apprenticeships offering Apprenticeships across over 20 different job sectors.
Employers who offer apprenticeship places have an employment contract with their apprentices, but off-the-job training and assessment is wholly funded by the state for apprentices aged between 16 and 18. In England, Government only contributes 50% of the cost of training for apprentices aged 19 and over.
Government funding agencies (in England, the Learning and Skills Council) contract with ‘learning providers’ to deliver apprenticeships, and may accredit them as a Centre of Vocational Excellence or National Skills Academy. These organisations provide off-the-job tuition and manage the bureaucratic workload associated with the apprenticeships. Providers are usually private training companies but might also be Further Education colleges, voluntary sector organisations, Chambers of Commerce or employers themselves.
 United States
Apprenticeship programs in the United States are regulated by the Smith-Hughes Law (1917), The National Industrial Recovery Act (1933), and National Apprenticeship Act, also known as the “Fitzgerald Act.”
In the modern era, the number of apprenticeships have declined greatly in North America. Free traditional apprenticeship job training has largely been replaced with on-the-job training (pay as you work), vocational classes, or college courses, which requires the student or an organization to pay for tuition. 
 American apprenticeship educational regime
In the United States, education officials and nonprofit organizations who seek to emulate the apprenticeship system in other nations have created school to work education reforms. They seek to link academic education to careers. Some programs include job shadowing, watching a real worker for a short period of time, or actually spending significant time at a job at no or reduced pay that would otherwise be spent in academic classes or working at a local business. Some legislators raised the issue of child labor laws for unpaid labor or jobs with hazards.
In the United States, school to work programs usually occur only in high school. American high schools were introduced in the early 20th century to educate students of all ability and interests in one learning community rather than prepare a small number for college. Traditionally, American students are tracked within a wide choice of courses based on ability, with vocational courses (such as auto repair and carpentry) tending to be at the lower end of academic ability and trigonometry and pre-calculus at the upper end.
American education reformers have sought to end such tracking, which is seen as a barrier to opportunity. By contrast, the system studied by the NCEE actually relies much more heavily on tracking. Education officials in the U.S., based largely on school redesign proposals by NCEE and other organizations, have chosen to use criterion-referenced tests that define one high standard that must be achieved by all students to receive a uniform diploma. American education policy under the “No Child Left Behind Act” has as an official goal the elimination of the achievement gap between populations. This has often led to the need for remedial classes in college.
Many U.S. states now require passing a high school graduation examination to ensure that students across all ethnic, gender and income groups possess the same skills. In states such as Washington, critics have questioned whether this ensures success for all or just creates massive failure (as only half of all 10th graders have demonstrated they can meet the standards).
There is a movement in the U.S. to revive vocational education. For example, the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades (IUPAT) has opened the Finishing Trades Institute (FTI). The FTI is working towards national accreditation so that it may offer associate and bachelor degrees that integrate academics with a more traditional apprentice programs. The IUPAT has joined forces with the Professional Decorative Painters Association (PDPA) to build educational standards using a model of apprenticeship created by the PDPA.
 Example of a U.S. apprenticeship program
Persons interested in learning to become electricians can join one of several apprenticeship programs offered jointly by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and the National Electrical Contractors Association. No background in electrical work is required. A minimum age of 18 is required. There is no maximum age. Men and women are equally invited to participate. The organization in charge of the program is called the National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee .
Apprentice electricians work 37 to 40 hours per week at the trade under the supervision of a journeyman electrician and receive pay and benefits. They spend an additional 6 hours per week in classroom training. At the conclusion of training (five years for commercial and industrial construction, less for residential construction), apprentices reach the level of journeyman electrician, and are able to work independently without supervision. All of this is offered at no charge, except for the cost of books (which is approximately $200 per year). Persons completing this program are considered highly skilled by employers and command high pay and benefits. Other unions such as the Ironworkers, Sheet Metal Workers, Plasterers, Bricklayers and others offer similar programs.
 Example of a Professional U.S. Apprenticeship
A modified form of apprenticeship is required for before an engineer is licensed as a Professional Engineer in any of the states of the United States. In the United States, regulation of professional engineering licenses is the right and responsibility of the federated state. That is, each of the 50 states sets its own licensing requirements and issues (and, if needed, revokes) licenses to practice engineering in that state.
Although the requirements can vary slightly from state to state, in general to obtain a Professional Engineering License in a given state, one must a graduate with Bachelor of Science in Engineering from an accredited college or university, pass the Engineer-in-Training (Engineer Intern) exam, work in that discipline for at least four years under a Licensed Professional Engineer, and then pass the Professional Engineers exam.
In most cases the states have reciprocity agreements so that once an individual becomes licensed in one state can also become licensed in other states with relative ease.
 See also
- Apprentices mobility
- Educational Theory of Apprenticeship
- German model
- Guru-disciple tradition
- Indentured servant
- Vocational education
- “Apprenticeship indenture”. Cambridge University Library Archives (Luard 179/9). March 18, 1642.
- “Apprenticeship indentures 1604 – 1697”. Cambridge St Edward Parish Church archives (KP28/14/2). Retrieved 2009-12-07.
- Adrian Room, ‘Cash, John (1822–1880)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
- “Australian Apprenticeships Homepage”. www.australianapprenticeships.gov.au. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
- ^ a b http://www.bmukk.gv.at/enfr/school/secon/app.xml
- Antrag auf Anerkennung als Lehrherr und Lehrbetrieb in der Landwritschaft; Land- und forstwirtschaftliche Fachausabildungsstelle Voralberg
- Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Germany). “BMWi – Ausbildungsberufe”. german language. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
- Andreas Hadjar, Rolf Becker: “Die Bildungsexpansion: Erwartete und unerwartete Folgen. 2006. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; p. 32/33
- ^ a b Aldrich, Richard (2005) [1997 in A. Heikkinen and R. Sultana (eds), Vocational Education and Apprenticeships in Europe]. “13 – Apprenticeships in England”. Lessons from History of Education. Routledge. pp. 195–205. ISBN 0415358922. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- ^ a b “Research, education & online exhibitions > Family history > In depth guide to family history > People at work > Apprentices”. The National Archives. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- Dunlop, O. J. (1912). “iv”. English Apprenticeship and Child Labour, a History. London: Fisher Unwin.
- Langford, Paul (1984) . “7 – The Eighteenth Century”. In Kenneth O. Morgan. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: OUP. pp. 382. ISBN 0198226845.
- ^ a b World Class Apprenticeships. The Government’s strategy for the future of Apprenticeships in England. DIUS/DCSF, 2008
- “What can I do an apprenticeship in?”. NGTU. Retrieved 2009-05-31.[dead link]
- “Creative Apprenticeships”. Creative & Cultural Skills.
-  SAISD Fundamental Beliefs: Excellence and equity in student performance are achievable for all students.
- Seattle Times, September 09, 2006 “WASL results show strong gains, puzzling declines across the state” By Linda Shaw
 Further reading
- Modern Apprenticeships: the way to work, The Report of the Modern Apprenticeship Advisory Committee, 2001 
- Apprenticeship in the British “Training Market”, Paul Ryan and Lorna Unwin, University of Cambridge and University of Leicester, 2001 
- Creating a ‘Modern Apprenticeship’: a critique of the UK’s multi-sector, social inclusion approach Alison Fuller and Lorna Unwin, 2003 (pdf)
- Apprenticeship systems in England and Germany: decline and survival. Thomas Deissinger in: Towards a history of vocational education and training (VET) in Europe in a comparative perspective, 2002 (pdf)
- European vocational training systems: the theoretical context of historical development. Wolf-Dietrich Greinert, 2002 in Towards a history of vocational education and training (VET) in Europe in a comparative perspective. (pdf)
- Apprenticeships in the UK- their design, development and implementation, Miranda E Pye, Keith C Pye, Dr Emma Wisby, Sector Skills Development Agency, 2004 (pdf)
- L’apprentissage a changé, c’est le moment d’y penser !, Ministère de l’emploi, du travail et de la cohésion sociale, 2005
- Learning on the Shop Floor: Historical Perspectives on Apprenticeship, Bert De Munck, Steven L. Kaplan, Hugo Soly. Berghahn Books, 2007. (Preview on Google books)
 External links
- Facts about Germany: Apprenticeships, Federal Foreign Office
- L’Apprenti, in French
- Academic Apprentices: Still an Ideal?, Barry Yeoman, Duke Magazine
Biography and current CV go to:
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New opportunities open to legal sector
New opportunities are being created for people hoping to work in the legal service sector as a leading skills organisation is joining forces with top law firms to develop an apprenticeship.
As the profession faces the biggest shake-up to the industry for decades, Skills for Justice is working in partnership with employers and stakeholders across the industry to build a recognised paralegal apprenticeship framework.
The not-for-profit organisation is working with law firms to help them transform the way they attract, recruit and train people for the future.
Alan Woods OBE, Chief Executive of Skills for Justice, said: “We are taking the good practice that is already taking place in the sector and bringing it together into a national framework.
“This is a way of providing a meaningful route to take young people from school into employment in the sector, creating more jobs for young people.
“By creating recognised paralegal apprenticeships we can ensure the same opportunities are open for everyone. It will assist the profession in opening up access to employment in legal services and provide the benchmark of quality that employers and their clients look for.”
Once created, this framework will have the potential to attract Government funding to cover the necessary training, especially for young people. The framework is expected to be ready for paralegals working in public prosecution by April with pathways for the commercial sector to be available by summer 2013.
The development of the framework follows the Legal Services Act (2007), which is expected to bring about the biggest shake-up of the profession for decades. The Act, which was fully implemented in October 2011, enables non-law firms to offer legal services for the first time, as well as allowing traditional law firms to attract investment or expand their services.
Top law firms including Gordons, Eversheds, Kennedys and DWF have already pledged their support for a paralegal apprenticeship framework and are involved in developing the National Occupational Standards, which will form the basis of the framework.
A group of 17 firms and stakeholders took part in the first meeting of a steering group to define and develop standards for functions performed by paralegals in December.
Alan added: “We are very excited about this project and delighted that so many firms, regulators, professional and representative bodies, and Central Government are taking the lead on the development of these standards which will support a lot of the activity already going on in firms.”
James O’Connell, CEO of the Institute of Paralegals, said: “The Institute of Paralegals is delighted to be assisting Skills for Justice in this important development.
“Consistent, formal training on a national level is one of the hallmarks of a true profession.”
Amanda Hamilton, CEO of National Association of Licensed Paralegals (NALP), the longest established Professional Body for Paralegals (25 years) and an Ofqual awarding organisation said:
“The creation of paralegal apprenticeships can only be a good thing for the paralegal profession. It will encourage legal departments of companies, local authorities and alternative business structures (ABSs) to open their doors to paralegals and broaden the spectrum of environments in which skilled paralegal professionals can make a contribution, as well as laying the foundation for the paralegal to become the third branch of the legal profession.”
Katherine Price, Training Manager at Lyons Davidson, said: “At Lyons Davidson we are very keen to find more ways to make careers at our firm more accessible through non-traditional routes and we are excited to be working with Skills for Justice to this end. “
“We already provide support to employees in obtaining qualifications while working, and creating new avenues to achieve this can only be a good thing. This project has the potential to bring about real positive change to the legal community and we are pleased to be a part of that.”
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Apprentices provide a secure future for Prison Service
The job of a Prisoner Custody Officer (PCO) is one of the most challenging of all. Balancing the needs of safety, security and care of prisoners, the role involves being a parent, carer and counsellor as well as a keeper of keys. This is why new recruits are receiving the very best training possible to ensure they are ready for the challenge through the Custodial Care Apprenticeship.
The apprenticeship is being offered to all new recruits taken on at Serco, a leading operator of custodial services in the UK. The company currently runs four prisons, a young offender institution and a secure training centre on behalf of the Ministry of Justice, as well as prisoner escort and custody services.
Garry Regan, Training and Resource Manager in the Programmes and Transition Group at Serco, said: “A PCO requires excellent interpersonal skills, self belief, determination and a willingness to help other people.
“You are a mother, a father, a nurse and a whole host of other roles as well. The job’s not just about completing certain tasks but changing the way you think about the world and the way you see things. It’s not just a career, but a way of life.”
The Custodial Care Advanced Level Apprenticeship has been developed by Skills for Justice with the help of employers, like Serco, who proposed the framework to help promote high standards across the prison service. The apprenticeship will provide a consistent set of qualifications and standards to ensure that employees have the necessary skills needed for their present and future career in custodial care. It includes a Level 3 NVQ Diploma in Custodial Care, which is equivalent to two A levels.
Delivered by Newcastle under Lyme College, the apprenticeship is currently being provided at three prisons – HMP Doncaster, HMP Dovegate and HMP Lowdham Grange. At HMP Thameside, the new category B prison opening in March this year, over 75 Serco staff have registered for the apprenticeship.
Garry, who was part of the working group that put the standards together for the apprenticeship, said: “As an employer, it makes sense to ensure new recruits are trained to a high standard. While the NVQ demonstrates somebody’s ability to do the job, the apprenticeship is about developing the individual and giving them more of a chance to have a positive impact on the business. We are extremely proud of our involvement.”
Vicky Boulton Clark, Head of Employer Engagement and Work-Based Learning at Newcastle under Lyme College, said: “Because the apprenticeship covers what is relevant, apprentices are demonstrating their ability to understand what the role of a custodial officer is. The apprenticeship also includes maths and English, which are vital skills and support the development of prison custody officers further down the line.”
She believes the apprenticeship is a solid way of preparing new recruits for the role, adding, “New prison officers coming into the service will be trained to the standards of the business and this gives employers confidence in their staff.”
Successful Serco apprentices so far include Tanya Savage, a dedicated and talented young PCO at HMP Dovegate, who has been nominated for Apprentice of the Year at the Staffordshire and Stoke-on-Trent Apprenticeship Recognition Awards.
Her assessor at HMP Dovegate, Chris Love, said: “Tanya has had to deal with some very challenging individuals in difficult situations, frequently dealing with confrontation. I have observed her as she has continually developed her assertiveness and interpersonal skills and at the same time has upheld the organisation’s policy on Equality and Diversity and Decency whilst still maintaining physical, procedural and dynamic security.
“She is an exemplary candidate who is driven and highly motivated but at the same time, is a very modest individual. She is a credit to her generation.”
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Apprenticeships key to Scottish food and drink firms’ growth
The Scotch whisky industry has used apprenticeships to help it grow export levels but needs to keep recruiting new talent to maintain growth of the industry, according to a Scotch Whisky Association (SWA) report on employment in the sector.
“The outlook is positive for career prospects in the industry based on its continued success,” Rosemary Gallagher, the SWA’s communications manager told FoodManufacture.co.uk.
“There are great opportunities in the next 10 to 20 years as new markets open up, such as the BRICs [Brazil, Russia, India and China]. And other emerging economies and mature markets, such as the US and France, will continue to grow.”
Apprenticeships in engineering, copper work and coopering (barrel-making) in particular were being offered by many firms in the sector as a way of attracting new talent in key positions, she added. All SWA member firms currently offer apprenticeships.
The Scottish whisky sector already directly employs 10,000 people and is responsible for the indirect employment of a further 35,000 in farming, tourism and logistical roles, among others, revealed The SWA Job Report.
An estimated £1bn has been invested in the sector over the past four years. Diageo alone has invested £600M over six years to increase production capacity. That includes a new malt distillery at Roseisle and a doubling of capacity at the Glenfiddich, Glenlivet and Macallan distilleries, said Gallagher.
“These examples show confidence in the future of the Scotch whisky industry,” she added.
The Scottish cabinet secretary for rural affairs and environment, Richard Lochhead said: “Scotland’s thriving food and drink industry needs the right people with the right skills to ensure its continued success. The modern apprenticeship programme is a great way to foster those skills in young people.”
Lochead commended potato grower and processor Greenvale on becoming the first fresh produce firm in Scotland to be approved as a modern apprenticeship centre by Improve Scotland, the skills council for Scotland’s food and drink industry.
Approval means the firm’s facility in Duns, on the Scottish border, can now verify the standards of its own apprentices without outside assessors such as colleges or private training businesses.
Improve director Justine Fosh said: “Greenvale approached us because they recognised the opportunity to both educate Apprentices in their business and assess progress against recognised industry standards.”
“We were delighted to support them in this and would be happy to hear from other food processing companies that would like to demonstrate similar levels of commitment to high-quality apprenticeship training.”
Across the UK, over 2,000 candidates have enrolled on advanced level apprenticeship schemes for food manufacturing since 2009.
Meanwhile, for more information about the contribution of apprenticeships in UK food and drink manufacturing, make a date to attend our free Skills Seminar organised in conjunction with the Institute of Food Science & Technology
Intended for HR directors and managers, the free morning seminar will take place at the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham on Monday March 26.
The event, which takes place alongside Food and Drink Expo and Foodex shows, will include presentations from the Food and Drink Federation on what is being done to raise the industry’s image; plus information on new training schemes; the latest manufacturing apprenticeship schemes; and a new transferable skills initiative.
For more information and to secure your place at this free event, contact Hannah Rosevear on Hannah.Rosevear.
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Apprentices ‘gap’ has to close
Published: 15 February 2012
Joining forces: From left, Sheffield Central Labour MP Paul Blomfield, past Master Cutler Doug Liversidge and Gordon Millward, from the Federation of Small Businesses. Picture Stuart Hastings
By BOB RAE Business Reporter
Business and education in Sheffield are being urged to join forces to close an apprentice training gap that is putting the city at a disadvantage to others in the UK.
The call comes from Sheffield Central Labour MP Paul Blomfield, who says Sheffield is lagging behind other places when it comes to the number of apprentices being trained in the city.
Mr Blomfield was speaking after hosting a round table discussion in the Cutlers’ Hall which brought together local business leaders, educationalists, politicians and the National Apprenticeships Service.
He believes that, despite disagreements over the standards set for some apprentice training and how well they meet the needs of business, there is strong, across the board support for boosting apprenticeships in the region.
Mr Blomfield says one way forward could be to set up a Sheffield-based Apprenticeship Training Agency, which would make it simpler for employers to recruit apprentices, secure government support and ensure training was flexible enough to meet their needs as well as the needs of their apprentices.
“I was struck by comments that Sheffield is behind the game on apprenticeship numbers and that’s something that ought to worry us all. An Apprenticeship Training Agency could be a game changer,” said Mr Blomfield.
“I think we are beginning to see a framework which would address the concerns small and medium sized enterprises have got, provide them with easy access to the big pool of potential apprentices and also make it easier for apprentices to get a range of development opportunities that might not be available in in SME.”
Mr Blomfield says there are a number of different models for running Apprenticeship Training Agencies and that the Sheffield City Region Local Enterprise Partnership might play an important role in launching one of the agencies locally.
Apprenticeship Training Agencies are designed to support employers who wish to take on an apprentice but are unable to in the current economic climate.
They can help employers whose order books do not currently allow them to commit to employing someone throughout the whole of an apprenticeship, but know that they will need fully trained employees when the economy picks up.
The Agency, rather than the company, acts as the apprentice employer and who places them with a host employer, which pays the Agency a fee for the apprentice’s services; nade up of the wage agreed with the host company and the Agency’s management fee.
Agencies offer other benefits for the employer, including support with recruitment and taking responsibility for the apprentice’s wages, tax, and National Insurance contributions.
The round table discussion took place during a drop-in session at which small and medium sized firms had their questions about apprenticeships answered by experts from the National Apprenticeship Service.
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Youth unemployment on the rise despite apprenticeship initiatives
Youth unemployment rose by 22,000 in the three months leading up to December 2011, according to the Office for National Statistics (ONS).
The unemployment rate for people aged 16 to 24 rose to 22.2 per cent in the quarter, an increase of 0.3 percentage points from July to September 2011.
The labour market statistics, published today, show there were 1.04 million unemployed young people in the three months leading up to December 2011.
The figure decreases to 731,000, however, if learners in full-time education are removed.
David Miliband MP said: “Today’s rise in youth unemployment strengthens the case for action on this tragic issue.
“We now know that the cost of current levels of youth unemployment is going to be close to £30 billion over the next decade.
“I again call on the government to double its proposed number of wage subsidies for employers taking on young people this year, offer a part time job guarantee to prevent long term unemployment becoming lifetime under-employment, and open up access to apprenticeships of higher quality and consistency.”
The total jobless figure is now at 2.67 million, up 48,000 on the previous quarter and 179,000 from the same time last year.
The government has launched a number of initiatives to try and combat youth unemployment, including a £1,500 cash incentive for small businesses to take on a new apprentice.
Simon Waugh, chief executive of the National Apprenticeship Service (NAS), says apprenticeships shouldn’t be seen as a vehicle for putting young people back into work.
Mr Waugh told the Guardian: “Apprenticeships are not about unemployment.
“These are real jobs that exist anyway and this is about training people and giving them the best foundation they will ever have in their lives.”
(A summary of the ONS statistics can be downloaded here.)
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Minister comes under fire over North-East apprenticeships
8:00am Tuesday 14th February 2012 in
MINISTERS are under fire over claims about a huge rise in the number of apprenticeships across the region.
Figures obtained by The Northern Echo show that most of the rise is among older workers, rather than young people who have been hit hardest by rising unemployment.
Most of the apprenticeships are in health, care services, retail and business administration, with relatively few in traditional trades, such as engineering, manufacturing and construction.
Pat Glass, the Labour MP for North-West Durham, has accused the Government of “rebadging” existing shortterm training schemes and work placements to boast of a rise in apprenticeships.
She said: “Apprenticeships have a currency that people recognise – they should provide a career in areas such as engineering and construction.
Instead, what we are getting is short-term work placements in health, care and administration. I am not saying they are not worthwhile, but such learning used to be on the job.
“If you look behind the figures, there has been a huge increase in placements for over- 25s, while very little is being done for 16 to 19-year-olds, when there is rising youth unemployment.”
The figures, comparing 2010 and 2011, appear to show big increases in apprenticeships in the North-East (up from 18,510 to 34,550) and Yorkshire (from 36,530 to 55,800).
However, in both regions, most of the rise is explained by a surge in take-up among over-25s. The rise among under-19s was far smaller.
The statistics, from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, show that relatively few last year were apprentices in engineering and manufacturing (3,190 in the North-East and 7,070 in Yorkshire) or construction (2,530 and 3,450, respectively).
Those numbers were swamped by the numbers receiving in-work training in business, administration and law (11,230 and 15,660) and retail (8,250 and 13,170), in particular.
Ms Glass said the “rebadging”
was largely of people going through Labour’s Train To Gain scheme, which was axed by the Coalition.
The companies offering training to the most people included BT, Capita Group, Tesco and McDonald’s.
Skills Minister John Hayes said the Government was making unprecedented investment that was making apprenticeships the “gold standard in vocational training”.
He said: “The National Audit Office said that for every £1 of taxpayers’ money, apprenticeships generate £18 for the wider economy, undeniably boosting economic growth and providing new life chances for young and older learners.
“The average apprenticeship lasts more than 12 months and entails a rigorous period of job-relevant training.
Those training providers that do not meet the high standards learners deserve are having their funding withdrawn.”
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Jewellery boss to head up employer review of apprentices
Social entrepreneur and jeweller Jason Holt has been appointed by the government to head up an employer-led review of what can be done to boost apprenticeship take-up among SMEs.
Holt, who runs the not-for-profit training academy Holts Academy of Jewellery, as well as his own jewellery business in London’s Hatton Garden, will be tasked with talking to a range of stakeholders on how to improve the marketing of the apprenticeships programme, and how to cut red tape to further speed up and simplify the process of taking on and training apprentices.
Skills minister John Hayes said: “I am delighted Mr Holt has agreed to lead this review. His experience, both as a businessman and through running a training academy, gives him invaluable insight into the needs of both small businesses and apprentices.
“I want to ensure that small businesses can enjoy the multitude of benefits that apprentices can offer a company – including improved productivity and the chance to build a better-skilled and dedicated workforce. This review will play a vital role in achieving that aim.”
Jason Holt added: “I am delighted to have been asked by Ministers to lead this Review. It is vital that we make the apprenticeship route as accessible as possible for SMEs.
“As the owner of several such companies, including an Academy, I hope that I can use my experience to add value and make a positive and practical contribution to something so fundamental in the growth of business.”
The review aims to build on government initiatives already underway to make the apprenticeships system more responsive to SME needs. These include reducing the time taken to advertise an apprenticeship vacancy to within one month of deciding to take on an apprentice; removing SFA health and safety requirements on providers that go beyond regulatory requirements; and new employer incentive payments of £1,500 to support up to 40,000 additional places for young people (16-24), where these are new jobs with smaller employers.
Holt will present his report to ministers in May this year.
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Teesside businessman calls for apprenticeships increase
A TEESSIDE businessman is calling on fellow firms to help increase the number of apprenticeships offered to young people.
Barry Parvin, a Guisborough care home owner, is urging colleagues in the care sector to “do their bit” to help the region’s out-of-work youngsters.
To launch his campaign, he has taken on his first apprentice, 18-year-old Shawn Howard, of Redcar, who has been given a role in the administration department of Barry’s Graceland Care Home where he will study for his NVQ Level 11 in business administration.
Barry, who is also chairman of the Redcar and Cleveland Care Providers Association, said: “Youngsters today have little chance of finding work when there are so few jobs available. Those of us in business need to go that extra mile to come up with more job opportunities, otherwise where will these youngsters end up?
“Going to university is no longer an option for many teenagers whose families simply cannot afford the huge tuition fees and this is already having an impact on youth unemployment in the North-east”.
Barry is working with the North-east region of the training and employment services provider, JHP Training, to highlight the problem.
JHP’s regional sales manager, Margaret Cholmondeley, said: “We could do with dozens more like Barry to create apprenticeship vacancies and in some small but important way ease the pressure on job-seeking youngsters in our region. We need to give them more of a chance to find career opportunities.
“If the care providers could find just one vacancy each it would really help. We will then work with them to identify the right young person for the vacancy to make sure they are on a career path they wish to follow. We then deliver the necessary training in conjunction with the employer to make the youngster ‘job ready’.
“Apprenticeship programmes are an excellent way of future-proofing the skills of your workforce. They deliver training designed around your business, providing the skilled workers you need for the future.
“They also help you to develop the knowledge base your business needs to keep pace with the latest technology and working practices. At the same time, it gives the employer the opportunity to develop the individual’s skills in a way that best suits the business”.
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Recycling creating jobs for apprentices
RECYCLING has given dozens of unemployed young people a fresh start in the jobs market.
The environmental charity, Groundwork South West, which runs Weston Mill Civic Amenity recycling centre, has run two successful apprenticeship schemes.
APPRENTICES: Pictured, from left, are PCC supervisor Steve Mahony, Cllr Mike Leaves, Groundwork supervisor Nigel Stockdale, apprentice Adam Smith and assistant supervisor Colin Beal
Now Plymouth City Council has extended Groundwork South West’s contract for another year.
Running the centre has given Groundwork South West the opportunity to offer apprenticeships in waste management to teams of 15 previously unemployed young people.
The apprenticeship scheme lasts six months and Groundwork is now into its second scheme.
Led by Groundwork’s supervisors Nigel Stockdale and Lesley Boxall, the young people are learning the skills of waste management, health and safety, customer service and the importance of teamwork.
Colin Beal, aged 23, applied for the position of assistant supervisor following his apprenticeship at Weston Mill. He was successful and now works permanently for Groundwork South West at the recycling centre.
Colin said: “I absolutely love it here. I have made really good friends and enjoy working with everyone.
“I have recently become a dad and so have more responsibilities. This job, as assistant supervisor, has given me more confidence.”
Adam Smith, aged 19, who is on the apprenticeship scheme, said: “I really messed about at school and wasted my time there. I wasn’t at all focused. This opportunity with Groundwork is the best thing I have done.
“I was determined to get an apprenticeship and I think wearing a suit and looking smart at the interview made a difference.
“I am now getting training and working as part of a team. I love meeting the public and I am working hard to set an example to my children.”
Lesley Boxall, Groundwork supervisor, said: “All the young people get on really well and work very hard in all weathers.
“The public have been delighted with the service they get when they come here. We even broke a record for the most cars through the gate in January when we exceeded 800 cars in one day.”
The apprentices have helped to improve the site’s cleanliness, customer service and overall efficiency.
Cllr Mike Leaves, the city’s Cabinet member for community services, said: “These young people have got stuck into the job with plenty of enthusiasm and drive. Praise for their helpful and courteous manner keeps coming in and the work of the apprentices has improved the site’s performance.”
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